Do You Really Need Back Surgery? A Surgeon's Guide to Neck and Back Pain and How to Choose Your Treatment

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The Nature of Pain and How It Is Treated

Chapter 2

Advanced Pain Medications from Biotechnology
Biotechnology promises to develop new medications for the treatment of pain, muscle spasm and nerve injury. These drug delivery vehicles include a targeting element (blue sphere, and a chemical backbone (red repeating units) that carry multiple drug molecules (yellow). They are injected near an area of injury and then travel via an “intraneural” route using a natural property of nerves called axonal transport.
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Aaron Filler, MD, PhD Do You Really Need Back Surgery Spine illustrations Oxford University Press Spine Book table of contents
Back Pain Guide