Do You Really Need Back Surgery? A Surgeon's Guide to Neck and Back Pain and How to Choose Your Treatment

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Accidents of the Embryo:

Spina Bifida and Variations at Birth

Chapter 8

Cervical Vertebral Number Abnormalities

- Cervical Rib

The presence of a rib on the seventh cervical vertebra greatly increases the risk of developing arm and hand pain from thoracic outlet syndrome. This is a rare congenital abnormality. Reproduced from Atlas of Human Anatomy by Frank Netter, MD, with permission of Icon Learning Systems/Elsevier.
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Aaron Filler, MD, PhD Do You Really Need Back Surgery Spine illustrations Oxford University Press Spine Book table of contents
Back Pain Guide