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Spine Carpentry:

History & Principles of Rebuilding the Broken Spine

Chapter 15

Lumbar Fusion Cages and Pedicle Screws
These titanium cages may be placed in the disk space to help provide support and limit movement. The X-ray shows a patient in whom pedicle screws have also been placed.  The cages are typically filled with bone graft material and  bone growth promoting proteins.  Cage comparison reprinted with permission of Medtronic, Inc.