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The medical information provided in this site is intended only as a means of helping to improve the effectiveness of communication between  patients and their doctors. The mention,  description, or explanation of utility of any treatment, implant or device  in this site in no way implies that it is appropriate for use in the care of any individual reader or patient. Dr. Filler does not provide medical opinions or advice to any patient who he has not personally examined. Recommendation of any treatment is always based on the findings of a physician who has taken a history, done a physical examination, and reviewed the results of all appropriate tests and evaluations. The choice to proceed with a treatment rests with the individual patient. Listing of risks and complications in this site and in the book is meant to be extensive but may not be completely comprehensive.  The treatments and methodologies described in this site represent the state of technology at the time of completion of this manuscript. Medicine is an ever-changing field. New treatments and tests are developed. Treatments thought to be helpful at one time may later be appreciated to be less effective than originally believed. Medical devices and implants may be used by physicians in various types of treatment with or without approval of the US Food and Drug Administration. Various countries have their own regulatory environments and device approval processes. In some cases a physician may obtain specific consent from a patient for the use of a device or implant that has not been approved or which has been approved for a different use. Illustrations of implants and devices in this site may appear because the manufacturer has granted permission for use of the illustration by Dr. Filler in this site. Such permissions should not be considered as a recommendation or advertisement for use of the device by the manufacturer nor an endorsement by the author. Dr. Filler has no financial relationship with any of the device, implant, equipment or pharmaceutical manufacturers mentioned in this site with the exception of the axonally delivered medications being developed by Molecular Synthetics, Inc, and referred to in the image for Chapter 2.